Ptosis refers to the lid position being lower than normal. Ptosis may affect either children or adults, but generally has different etiologies for each type. In children, congenital ptosis is due to the eyelid muscle that raises the eye not developing fully or poor function. The eyelid muscles' function is compromised due to poorly developed muscle fibers. As a result, the eyelid droops. The disease may be bilateral.
In cases of congenital ptosis, vision loss may occur due to amblyopia. This can occur either from deprivation amblyopia or refractive amblyopia. The surgical correction of ptosis may be required in order to adequately elevate the eye for proper visual development.
Because the eyelid muscle does not develop correctly in congenital ptosis, the postoperative result is never completely normal. Children who have had surgery may not be able to fully close their eyes, particularly when sleeping at night, and may require chronic use of ointments at bedtime. In cases of amblyopia, the child may require amblyopia treatment in the form of glasses or patching.